Schlagworte: Robophilosophy

Considerations about Animal-friendly Machines

Semi-autonomous machines, autonomous machines and robots inhabit closed, semi-closed and open environments. There they encounter domestic animals, farm animals, working animals and/or wild animals. These animals could be disturbed, displaced, injured or killed. Within the context of machine ethics, the School of Business FHNW developed several design studies and prototypes for animal-friendly machines, which can be understood as moral machines in the spirit of this discipline. They were each linked with an annotated decision tree containing the ethical assumptions or justifications for interactions with animals. Annotated decision trees are seen as an important basis in developing moral machines. They are not without problems and contradictions, but they do guarantee well-founded, secure actions that are repeated at a certain level. The article „Towards animal-friendly machines“ by Oliver Bendel, published in August 2018 in Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics, documents completed and current projects, compares their relative risks and benefits, and makes proposals for future developments in machine ethics.

Fig.: An animal-friendly vehicle?

No Ban on Development

„Sex robots are coming, but the argument that they could bring health benefits, including offering paedophiles a ’safe‘ outlet for their sexual desires, is not based on evidence, say researchers. The market for anthropomorphic dolls with a range of orifices for sexual pleasure – the majority of which are female in form, and often boast large breasts, tiny waists and sultry looks – is on the rise, with such dummies selling for thousands of pounds a piece.“ (Guardian, 5 June 2018) These are the initial words of an article in the well-known British daily newspaper Guardian, published on 5 June 2018. It quotes Susan Bewley, professor of women’s health at Kings College London – and Oliver Bendel, professor at the School of Business FHNW and expert for information and machine ethics. He is not in favor of a ban on the development of sex robots and love dolls. However, he can imagine that the area of application could be limited. He calls for empirical research in the field. The article can be accessed via www.theguardian.com/science/2018/jun/04/claims-about-social-benefits-of-sex-robots-greatly-overstated-say-experts.

Fig.: Empirical research is necessary

Symposium in Helsinki on Moral Machines

„Moral Machines? The Ethics and Politics of the Digital World“ is a symposium organized by two research fellows, Susanna Lindberg and Hanna-Riikka Roine at the Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies. „The aim of the symposium is to bring together researchers from all fields addressing the many issues and problems of the digitalization of our social reality, such as thinking in the digital world, the morality and ethics of machines, and the ways of controlling and manipulating the digital world.“ (Website Symposium) The symposium will take place in Helsinki from 6 to 8 March 2019. It welcomes contributions addressing the various aspects of the contemporary digital world. The organizers are especially interested „in the idea that despite everything they can do, the machines do not really think, at least not like us“. „So, what is thinking in the digital world? How does the digital machine ‚think‘?“ (Website Symposium) Proposals can be sent to the e-mail address moralmachines2019@gmail.com by 31 August 2018. Decisions will be made by 31 October 2018. Further information is available on https://blogs.helsinki.fi/moralmachines/.

Roboterquote für den öffentlichen Raum

Bei der internationalen Konferenz „Robophilosophy“, die seit 14. Februar 2018 an der Universität Wien stattfindet, treffen sich Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler aus der ganzen Welt. Die Kameras waren in den ersten zwei Tagen vor allem auf den Keynote-Speaker Hiroshi Ishiguro (Intelligent Robotics Laboratory, Osaka University, Japan) gerichtet, den im Moment vielleicht berühmtesten Robotiker. Bei der Konferenz verblüffte er das Publikum mit der kühnen Behauptung, seine humanoiden Roboter (sein Doppelgänger eingeschlossen) befänden sich nicht mehr im Uncanny Valley. Weitere Keynote-Speaker waren Guy Standing (Basic Income Earth Network and School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK) und Oliver Bendel (Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Hochschule für Wirtschaft FHNW, Schweiz). Oliver Bendel brachte eine Roboterquote für den öffentlichen Raum ins Spiel. Am 17. Februar, am letzten Konferenztag, referiert Joanna Bryson (Department of Computer Science, University of Bath, UK). Auch bei den Vorträgen und Workshops finden sich bekannte Namen, etwa Charles M. Ess (UiO Department of Media and Communication, Oslo) und Catrin Misselhorn (Institut für Philosophie, Universität Stuttgart). Veranstalter sind Mark Coeckelbergh und Janina Loh (Institut für Philosophie, Universität Wien).

Robophilosophy

„Robophilosophy 2018 – Envisioning Robots In Society: Politics, Power, And Public Space“ is the third event in the Robophilosophy Conference Series which focusses on robophilosophy, a new field of interdisciplinary applied research in philosophy, robotics, artificial intelligence and other disciplines. The main organizers are Prof. Dr. Mark Coeckelbergh, Dr. Janina Loh and Michael Funk. Plenary speakers are Joanna Bryson (Department of Computer Science, University of Bath, UK), Hiroshi Ishiguro (Intelligent Robotics Laboratory, Osaka University, Japan), Guy Standing (Basic Income Earth Network and School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK), Catelijne Muller (Rapporteur on Artificial Intelligence, European Economic and Social Committee), Robert Trappl (Head of the Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Austria), Simon Penny (Department of Art, University of California, Irvine), Raja Chatila (IEEE Global Initiative for Ethical Considerations in AI and Automated Systems, Institute of Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France), Josef Weidenholzer (Member of the European Parliament, domains of automation and digitization) and Oliver Bendel (Institute for Information Systems, FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland). The conference will take place from 14 to 17 February 2018 in Vienna. More information via conferences.au.dk/robo-philosophy/.

Fig.: Robophilosophy in Vienna

Robophilosophy 2018

The conference „Robophilosophy 2018 – Envisioning Robots In Society: Politics, Power, And Public Space“ will take place in Vienna (February 14 – 17, 2018). According to the website, it has three main aims; it shall present interdisciplinary humanities research „in and on social robotics that can inform policy making and political agendas, critically and constructively“, investigate „how academia and the private sector can work hand in hand to assess benefits and risks of future production formats and employment conditions“ and explore how research in the humanities, including art and art research, in the social and human sciences, „can contribute to imagining and envisioning the potentials of future social interactions in the public space“ (Website Robophilosophy). Plenary speakers are Joanna Bryson (Department of Computer Science, University of Bath, UK), Alan Winfield (FET – Engineering, Design and Mathematics, University of the West of England, UK) and Catelijne Muller (Rapporteur on Artificial Intelligence, European Economic and Social Committee). Deadline for submission of abstracts for papers and posters is October 31. More information via conferences.au.dk/robo-philosophy/.

Fig.: Reflexions on robots